Buckle up, It’s going to be a bumpy ride…


The United States Environmental Protection Agency says that Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities. In 2012, CO2 accounted for about 82% of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from human activities. Carbon dioxide is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth’s carbon cycle (the natural circulation of carbon among the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants, and animals). Human activities are altering the carbon cycle—both by adding more CO2 to the atmosphere and by influencing the ability of natural sinks, like forests, to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. While CO2 emissions come from a variety of natural sources, human-related emissions are responsible for the increase that has occurred in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution. [1]

U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions, By Source

Pie chart that shows emissions by use. 38 percent is electricity, 33 percent is transportation, 14 percent is industry, 9 percent is residential and commercial, and 6 percent is other (non-fossil fuel combustion).

Note: All emission estimates from the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2012.

The main human activity that emits CO2 is the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil) for energy and transportation, although certain industrial processes and land-use changes also emit CO2. The main sources of CO2emissions in the United States are described below.

  • Electricity. Electricity is a significant source of energy in the United States and is used to power homes, business, and industry. The combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity is the largest single source of CO2 emissions in the nation, accounting for about 38% of total U.S. CO2emissions and 31% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2012. The type of fossil fuel used to generate electricity will emit different amounts of CO2. To produce a given amount of electricity, burning coal will produce more CO2than oil or natural gas.
  • Transportation. The combustion of fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel to transport people and goods is the second largest source of CO2 emissions, accounting for about 32% of total U.S. CO2 emissions and 27% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2012. This category includes transportation sources such as highway vehicles, air travel, marine transportation, and rail.
  • Industry. Many industrial processes emit CO2 through fossil fuel combustion. Several processes also produce CO2 emissions through chemical reactions that do not involve combustion, for example, the production and consumption of mineral products such as cement, the production of metals such as iron and steel, and the production of chemicals. Fossil fuel combustion from various industrial processes accounted for about 14% of total U.S. CO2 emissions and 12% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2012. Note that many industrial processes also use electricity and therefore indirectly cause the emissions from the electricity production.

Carbon dioxide is constantly being exchanged among the atmosphere, ocean, and land surface as it is both produced and absorbed by many microorganisms, plants, and animals. However, emissions and removal of CO2 by these natural processes tend to balance. Since the Industrial Revolution began around 1750, human activities have contributed substantially to climate change by adding CO2 and other heat-trapping gases to the atmosphere.

In the United States, since 1990, the management of forests and non-agricultural land has acted as a net sink of CO2, which means that more CO2 is removed from the atmosphere, and stored in plants and trees, than is emitted. This sink offset about 15% of total emissions in 2012 and is discussed in more detail in the Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry section.

To find out more about the role of CO2 warming the atmosphere and its sources, visit the Causes of Climate Changepage and the Greenhouse Gas Indicators page in the Science section.

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Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the United States increased by about 5% between 1990 and 2012. Since the combustion of fossil fuel is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, changes in emissions from fossil fuel combustion have historically been the dominant factor affecting total U.S. emission trends. Changes in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are influenced by many long-term and short-term factors, including population growth, economic growth, changing energy prices, new technologies, changing behavior, and seasonal temperatures. Between 1990 and 2012, the increase in CO2 emissions corresponded with increased energy use by an expanding economy and population, and an overall growth in emissions from electricity generation. Transportation emissions also contributed to the 5% increase, largely due to an increase in miles traveled by motor vehicles.

U.S. Carbon Dioxide Gas Emissions, 1990-2012

Line graph that shows the U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2012. In 1990 carbon dioxide emissions started around 5,000 million metric tons. The emissions rose to about 6,000 million metric tons in 2000 where it remained until about 2008 when it began to decline. By 2009, the carbon dioxide emissions were at about 5,500 million metric tons, followed by a slight recovering in 2010 to about 5,700 million metric tons and a decrease in 2012 to about 5,400 million metric tons.

Note: All emission estimates from the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2012.

 

Going forward, CO2 emissions in the United States are projected to grow by about 1.5% between 2005 and 2020. [2]

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Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions

The most effective way to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Many strategies for reducing CO2 emissions from energy are cross-cutting and apply to homes, businesses, industry, and transportation.

Examples of Reduction Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide
Strategy Examples of How Emissions Can be Reduced
Energy Efficiency Improving the insulation of buildings, traveling in more fuel-efficient vehicles, and using more efficient electrical appliances are all ways to reduce energy consumption, and thus CO2 emissions.

Energy Conservation Reducing personal energy use by turning off lights and electronics when not in use reduces electricity demand. Reducing distance traveled in vehicles reduces petroleum consumption. Both are ways to reduce energy CO2 emissions through conservation.Learn more about What You Can Do at Home, at School, in the Office, and on the Road to save energy and reduce your carbon footprint.
Fuel Switching Producing more energy from renewable sources and using fuels with lower carbon contents are ways to reduce carbon emissions.
Carbon Capture and Sequestration Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration is a set of technologies that can potentially greatly reduce CO2 emissions from new and existing coal- and gas-fired power plants, industrial processes, and other stationary sources of CO2. Learn more.

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*Carbon dioxide’s lifetime is poorly defined because the gas is not destroyed over time, but instead moves among different parts of the ocean–atmosphere–land system. Some of the excess carbon dioxide will be absorbed quickly (for example, by the ocean surface), but some will remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years, due in part to the very slow process by which carbon is transferred to ocean sediments.

The world would warm by 4°C by the end of this century if we do not take concerted action now. The World Bank report “Turn Down the Heat: Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts, and the Case for Resilience is a result of contributions from a wide range of experts from across the globe. The report follows “Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided”, released in November 2012. This new report outlines an alarming scenario for the days and years ahead—what we could face in our lifetime.

The scientists tell us that if the world warms by 2°C—warming which may be reached in 20 to 30 years—that will cause widespread food shortages, unprecedented heat-waves, and more intense cyclones. In the near-term, climate change, which is already unfolding, could batter the slums even more and greatly harm the lives and the hopes of individuals and families who have had little hand in raising the Earth’s temperature. Today, our world is 0.8°C above pre-industrial levels of the 18th century.

We could see a 2°C world in the space of one generation. The first Turn Down the Heat report was a wake-up call. This second scientific analysis gives us a more detailed look at how the negative impacts of climate change already in motion could create devastating conditions especially for those least able to adapt. The poorest could increasingly be hit the hardest. For this report, we turned again to the scientists at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics. This time, we asked them to take a closer look at the tropics and prepare a climate forecast based on the best available evidence and supplemented with advanced computer simulations. With a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South Asia, the report examines in greater detail the likely impacts for affected populations of present day, 2°C and 4°C warming on critical areas like agricultural production, water resources, coastal ecosystems and cities.

The result is a dramatic picture of a world of climate and weather extremes causing devastation and human suffering. In many cases, multiple threats of increasing extreme heat waves, sea-level rise, more severe storms, droughts and floods will have severe negative implications for the poorest and most vulnerable. In Sub-Saharan Africa, significant crop yield reductions with 2°C warming are expected to have strong repercussions on food security, while rising temperatures could cause major loss of savanna grasslands threatening pastoral livelihoods.

In South Asia, projected changes to the monsoon system and rising peak temperatures put water and food resources at severe risk. Energy security is threatened, too. While, across South East Asia, rural livelihoods are faced with mounting pressures as sea-level rises, tropical cyclones increase in intensity and important marine ecosystem services are lost as warming approaches 4°C. Across all regions, the likely movement of impacted communities into urban areas could lead to ever higher numbers of people in informal settlements being exposed to heat waves, flooding, and diseases.

Here, we take a look at the world’s five biggest polluters, according to EDGAR http://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/overview.php?v=intro&sort=des9

1. China

This picture from January 2013 shows two men walking in Beijing’s dense smog.  (AFP/Getty Images)

China overtook the United States as the world’s biggest carbon dioxide polluter in 2006, and has topped the list ever since.

In 2012, the communist country pumped an estimated 9.8 billion tons of CO2 into the world’s atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels such as oil and coal. And while emissions grew at a slower pace in 2012 than previous years, China still accounted for 70 percent of the global increase in CO2 emissions that year.

China’s smog levels are notorious. But air pollution is soaring to new heights due to the country’s rapid industrialization, reliance on coal power and increased car ownership for a booming population.

It doesn’t help that environmental laws are often ignored, according to green activists.

2. United States

Morning commuters travel the 210 freeway near Pasadena, Calif.  (David McNew/AFP/Getty Images)

As stated above, America’s carbon dioxide emissions had been going down for years. The decline can be partly attributed to the economic recession, improved energy efficiency, and the shale-gas boom.

Emissions reached a 20-year low of just under 5.2 billion metric tons in 2012.

But new figures show CO2 emissions actually increased 2 percent in 2013 as more utilities turned to coal for energy after a steep rise in natural gas prices.

Emissions are still 10 percent below 2005 levels, but they were once down 12 percent. The Obama administration set a goal of being 17 percent below 2005 levels by 2020.

Suddenly, that goal looks like a steeper climb.

3. India

Indian commuters walk up a foot bridge in New Delhi on Jan. 31, 2013.  (Prakash Singh/AFP/Getty Images)

India’s carbon dioxide emissions shot up 7.7 percent in 2012, with those from coal growing at an even faster pace of 10.2 percent.

That despite the South Asian country recording its lowest GDP growth — 4 percent — in a decade.

One in three Indians currently live in “critically-polluted” areas. And of the 180 cities monitored by India’s Central Pollution Control Board, just two — Malapuram and Pathanamthitta in Kerala — have what are considered “low” levels of air pollution.

4. Russia

A Russian woman wears a face mask to protect herself from smoke in Moscow.  (Natalia Kolesnikova/AFP/Getty Images)

Russia’s carbon dioxide emissions plunged after the collapse of Soviet-era smokestack industries, but it remains the world’s fourth largest CO2 polluter at 1.7 billion metric tons in 2012.

Hundreds of cities currently exceed pollution limits, with Moscow, St. Petersburg and the far-northern Siberian city of Norilsk among the worst offenders.

Two cities — Norilsk and the central Russian city of Dzerzhinsk — made the environmental group Blacksmith Institute’s list of the world’s most polluted places this year.

5. Japan

The suffocating smog that blanketed swathes of China hit parts of Japan in March 2013.  (Kazuhiro Nogi/AFP/Getty Images)

Japan recently watered down its target to cut carbon dioxide emissions despite the 1.3 million metric tons of CO2 it produced in 2012.

The new target, announced in November, reverses course from a goal set four years ago and now allows a 3.1 percent increase in emissions from 1990 levels rather than seeking a 25 percent cut.

It reflects the country’s increased reliance on fossil fuels in the aftermath of the Fukushimanuclear disaster in 2011.

 

Social Engagement and You

Your online reputation matters, now more than ever. But you can impact that reputation in ways you never thought possible. Here are some of the reasons to pay attention to social feedback and how to effectively engage with reviewers to build lifelong brand advocates.

engaged-brand-large

Social Engagement is Connecting

It’s simple, you just have to connect with people who post comments about you in social media sites. These people are your customers and they provide opinion, fact and detailed feedback about their interaction with you online. Contrary to popular belief, these people are not just teenagers or random people with an axe to grind, they are your customers.

Social Sites are Growing in Importance

As social site popularity grows, so should your awareness and understanding of your online reputation… Your prospective customers are on the prowl for every nugget of your online reputation.

Impact of Poor Online Reputation… Gone are the days when tweets, posts and opinions faded into the digital ether. With the surge of smartphone usage, people of all ages and social economic persuasions are using the information out there to decide about their next purchase. Your online reputation has the potential to kill your brand because people will change their mind, mid-buying cycle. You have to Listen and Act.

There is Real Value in Every Connection

Engaging with online reviewers allows you to uncover opportunities for operational improvement, increase customer loyalty, and improve your online reputation. Make no mistake about it, social media feedback can help you grow your business, perhaps in ways you never thought possible. You can glean details about your service, product or offering, your pricing and promotions. Yep, all that information is at your fingertips.

The Numbers Speak for Themselves…

85% of customers are very happy when businesses respond to their public comments in online forums and social media venues.

27% were “delighted” with a public response to their social feedback.

34% deleted their original negative review after being engaged.

Follow four simple steps to improved reputation

  1. Listen to all reviews from all social sites, review sites, blog posts and any other digital source.
  2. Target social reviews based on author influence and reach, review star rating, and keywords used in the review.
  3. Connect with the reviewer as fast as possible and use the best practices we spell out below.
  4. Watch your star ratings increase and your location’s online influence grow.

 

social_media_01

5 Engagement Best Practices

1. Marketing Sanctioned, 1 Brand Aware

Responses should mirror brand image and voice. Ensure that everyone authorized to reply to posts understands your brand voice and be sure to refresh the team as your brand voice changes. Create and distribute brand-voice guidelines. Provide a standard structure and keep your replies consistent. For example, ensure you end with a standard email for customer service and signature of replier including title. Do not copy and paste replies, rather, customize the reply to each reviewer by keying off the core messages in their review.

2. Don’t Take it Personally

Keep calm and think practically. Avoid knee jerk reactions. If you have to, give yourself a time-out before replying. Research with others before replying. Remember, customers don’t usually lie but they do embellish. Find out the details so you can address concerns confidently. Take the high road, don’t defend yourself and remember a heart felt apology never hurt anyone. As with all business, keep religion and politics out of it. This is about your company and product, not your social beliefs.

3. Target both Positive and Negative Reviews

NEGATIVE

  1. Apologize
  2. Reference the situation and commit to improve
  3. Offer help or ask what you can do for them

POSITIVE

  1. Remind your brand advocates that you’re listening
  2. Tell them something they didn’t know
  3. Invite them back

IN BOTH CASES

  1. Respond quickly, within the day if possible
  2. Be thankful for their feedback, every situation is a learning experience
  3. Reply on the public review site, but take the conversation to a designated email address that’s monitored by more than one person

Remember the “Golden Rule,” treat others as you would like to be treated!

4. Don’t just Talk…Act

Make sure you aren’t just paying lip service to the customers with whom you engage. You Must Follow Through!

First, pass the information onto the people who can make a difference in your business. Get it to the regional and general managers and their leadership teams and empower them to fix the issues quickly.

Next, encourage GM’s to use the information in pre-shift meetings for long term improvement. Reward staff whose efforts yield amazing customer service with monetary gifts and team-wide recognition. Consider creating a social media Hall of Fame or provide incentives for staff mentions: gift cards, shift priorities, time off, priority parking, and so on.

5. Measure your Progress

Ensure you keep track of engagement replies including who replied, reply date, and actual reply content. This is valuable for audit and training purposes.

Give yourself targets for engagement defined as numbers or percentage of total reviews. Some examples of goals include:

  1. % of reviews engaged: shoot for engaging with 50% of all online reviewers, even tweets
  2. % of engaged customers who reply: monitor how many customers reply to your outreach
  3. % of engaged customers who return: use your loyalty program and customer relationship management (CRM) platform to track customer return rates
  4. % who re-evaluate and repost reviews: give yourself bonus points for reviewers who change online reviews due to your efforts

rules-of-social-media-poster-1

Grow Your Efforts As You Grow

Next you might wonder how to size your social media efforts. Keep it in proportion to your business and your online presence. As you grow, increase your outbound engagement, and distribute the workload after proper social media training.

Social_Engagement

Reviews about your business are out there, it’s imperative that you listen, respond and fix the issues before they recur. Plan a time, even if only a few minutes a week, to reply to social media reviews using these best practices. Ensure you size your team and efforts to expand as you grow.

 

How to use Social Media

social-media-year-review-13-must-know-statistics-2013-infographicOnline social media tools can be some of the most rewarding and informative resources for anyone—IF you know how to use them.

In many ways, the fast-paced evolution of the internet parallels the move toward “big data” in science. In less than a decade, online tools have exploded in popularity and witnessed rapid expansion (Figure 1), with an increasing number of scientists now looking to take advantage of these web-based resources (see Box 1 and Table 1 for an overview and comparison of existing tools).

Social media portals in particular undergo regular reinvention and transformation, with different tools becoming popular for different populations [1]. Although a number of guides exist online, many researchers still feel overwhelmed and hesitant toward the virtual world, lacking sufficient information and guidance through formal scientific channels such as peer-reviewed journals. To better familiarize researchers with existing internet resources, here we discuss prospective benefits that can stem from online science conversations, explain how scientists can efficiently and effectively harness online resources, and provide an overview of popular online tools.

Figure 1. Monthly audience by communication methodology shown on A) log scale and B) linear scale.

Filled bars indicate traditional methodologies and unfilled bars indicate online methodologies. Data sources are as follows: 1. estimate; 2. estimate; 3. Scientific American (http://bit.ly/Z0dkaF); 4. San Diego Union-Tribune (http://bit.ly/WusyhV); 5. New York Times (http://bit.ly/14aktDi); 6. Twitter (http://tcrn.ch/146wWsy); 7. WordPress (http://bit.ly/WVBwDa); 8. Facebook (http://bit.ly/10xUemL). Numbers reflect the potential monthly audience for each medium, and not necessarily the number of users who access a particular content item on that medium. All data accessed on January 22, 2013 and normalized to monthly views.

doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001535.g001

Table 1. Comparison of Online Tools.

doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001535.t001

Box 1. Online Tools & Resources

Blogs – Traditional, long-form online narrative. WordPress (http://wordpress.com) and Blogger (http://blogger.com) are two of the most popular sites to offer free blog hosting, including easy graphical interfaces for constructing posts and changing blog layouts. If you aren’t sure if blogging is for you, or if you only have a few posts in mind, it is reasonable (and common practice) to enquire about a guest post on an established blog with a built-in audience.

RSS Feeds – Type of URL that allows users to automatically mine blog/website updates without the need for a web browser. RSS aggregators such as Google Reader are a streamlined and practical way to keep track of new and relevant content. Aggregated RSS feeds can additionally be imported and synced with dedicated apps; for example, MobileRSS is one useful software tool that can be used to access Google Reader feeds on smartphones and tablet devices.

Apps – Software used on mobile devices. Apps are especially useful as mobile social networking platforms (e.g., using Twitter, Tumblr, or Facebook apps to post updates while attending scientific conferences), synchronized data repositories (e.g., apps for organizing PDF libraries, address books, or RSS feeds), or as a gateway to connecting people with nature (e.g., popular apps such as Audubon Guides and Starwatch).

Twitter (http://twitter.com)- Social networking site that limits posts to 140 characters. Twitter is useful for in-the-moment conversations, customized news streams, and building and maintaining communities. Devices such as hashtags, a phrase beginning with a hash/pound sign (e.g., use #longreads when linking to lengthy online articles), allow users to aggregate tweets according to topic. For example, conference attendees will create a specific hashtag for a particular event, such as #asm2012 for the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology that took place in San Francisco (June 16–19, 2012). Tweets incorporating #asm2012 became so popular during the conference that this hashtag was listed as “trending” on the main Twitter homepage—a rare but impressive feat for online scientific discussions.

Facebook (http://www.facebook.com) – The most widely used social media site. There are divided opinions about Facebook, and researchers tend to view this site two ways: 1) They create a public profile that may reach a different audience than Twitter or blogs, or 2) They eschew using Facebook for research-related purposes at all, perhaps maintaining private profiles for only their closest friends and family (don’t get offended if they don’t accept your friend request!).

Tumblr (http://www.tumblr.com) – A microblogging site that can publish any type of media very easily and quickly. Users post photos, videos, or short quotes as opposed to long written narratives. Tumblr offers automatic forwarding of new posts to Facebook and Twitter accounts.

Pinterest (http://pinterest.com) – A photo-only microblogging site where users define themed “boards” for posting content (e.g., food, art, marine fish). Pinterest is a new and emerging social media site whose user demographics are significantly different from other portals (82% women [15]). “Pins” can also be shared via Facebook and Twitter. Oregon State University’s Superfund program maintains a Pinterest board on science communication (http://bit.ly/WbDUHd).

Storify (http://storify.com) – A way to aggregate and organize tweets, videos, blog posts, and other media. Storify is especially useful for compiling media on discrete discussions and preserving tweets before they become archived by Twitter. For example, if there is a panel discussion or academic seminar, a Storify can be created that includes live tweets from the audience, videos of the panelists, and links to their publications, websites, and social media profiles.

Linking communities – Include Digg (http://digg.com), StumbleUpon (http://www.stumbleupon.com), MetaFilter (http://www.metafilter.com), and more. These are content aggregation sites that recommend new and interesting content to subscribers.

Research Benefits from an Online Presence

In the age of the internet, social media tools offer a powerful way for scientists to boost their professional profile and act as a public voice for science. Although the type of online conversations and shared content can vary widely, scientists are increasingly using social media as a way to share journal articles, advertise their thoughts and scientific opinions, post updates from conferences and meetings, and circulate information about professional opportunities and upcoming events. Google searches now represent the standard approach for discovering information about a topic or person—whether it be search committees collecting information about faculty candidates, graduate students searching out prospective labs, or journalists on the hunt for an expert source. Consequently, in today’s technology-driven world, lack of an online presence can severely limit a researcher’s visibility, and runs the risk that undesirable search results appear before desirable ones (however, this scenario is easily rectified; see Box 2). A growing body of evidence suggests that public visibility and constructive conversation on social media networks can be beneficial for scientists, impacting research in a number of key ways.

Box 2. Advice for New Users

In academia, there is often a particular stigma attached to online activities. Actively maintaining an online profile and participating in social media discussions can be seen as a waste of time and a distraction from research and teaching duties. We believe this perception is misguided and based on incorrect interpretations of what scientists are actually doing online. When used in a targeted and streamlined manner, social media tools can complement and enhance a researcher’s career. When exploring online tools for the first time, new users can maximize their reach by considering the following points:

Explore online guides to social media

  • The Superfund program at Oregon State University maintains an exhaustive list of resources (blog articles, videos, how-to guides) focused on science and social media: http://bit.ly/WkdN0G. We recommend this site as a good jumping-off point for new users.

Establish a professional website (at minimum)

  • To establish an online presence and avoid undesirable Google search results, at minimum researchers should set up a personal website that lays out their specific research projects and areas of expertise, searchable by colleagues, journalists, and the public alike.
  • Although professional websites can be established through your university/institute, external hosts (a free site at http://wordpress.com or a custom paid domain) offer more flexibility and are easier to access and maintain.
  • If desired, a website can be supplemented with social media accounts (e.g., Twitter and Google+ profiles), which will also appear high in Google search results.

Locate pertinent online conversations

  • Find people with common interests; follow the social media that they link to and that links to them.
  • Use established social networks (e.g., a base of Twitter or LinkedIn contacts) or a means of notification (RSS feeds or personal messages from colleagues/acquaintances) to get started.
  • It is completely acceptable to “unfollow” people or groups if their information is not relevant or useful.
  • It can be beneficial to read first without contributing (“lurking”) to learn logistics and basic etiquette of different social media platforms.

Navigate the deluge of online information

  • Strictly maintaining and organizing online accounts is an effective way to filter information (e.g., grouping people using Twitter lists and Google+ circles).
  • Similar efficiency can be achieved by tracking and prioritizing the most relevant blogs and articles for reading (e.g., using RSS services such as Google Reader that can be accessed and synced to mobile devices via apps such as MobileRSS).
  • Popular content is often heavily reposted and shared; the most important articles and conversations will usually reach you at some point.
  • Explore multiple social media tools and related sites/apps for managing online accounts (Box 1). Find ones that you prefer with the appropriate features; consistent use of fewer tools is better than spreading yourself too thin across too many platforms.
  • Don’t be afraid to ask for help; there are many friendly and established communities who are willing and eager to assist new users.

Interact with diverse participants

  • Effective social media use requires engagement with the audience.
  • New users must be open to engaging with people outside one’s own professional background or realm of scientific expertise.
  • Tone of discussions can vary wildly, from cordial (e.g., conversations about fascinating species) to highly argumentative (e.g., politically sensitive topics such as climate change).
  • Users striving to impose a specific viewpoint on their audience (e.g., #arseniclife,http://nbcnews.to/152OCTH) or that are perceived to promote discrimination/sexism (e.g., #womenspace, http://bit.ly/KnEPRy) often face significant backlash and outrage.

Reach your audience

  • Online communication methods only reach people who are interested in talking about science online.
  • Mainstream media continues to represent the most effective platform for disseminating scientific information to broad audiences; 66% of Americans get their news through television, 43% through the internet, 31% through newspapers, and 19% through radio (participants were allowed to name two sources; 2011 Pew poll, http://goo.gl/g2j45).
  • Online communities, conversations, and user demographics (sex ratios, racial demographics [15][17]) can vary across different tools, with surprisingly little overlap. Using multiple tools may be necessary to achieve one’s goals. Notably, many people shy away from using Facebook in light of lingering concerns about privacy (http://nyti.ms/KkwbDE).
  • The majority of established bloggers (72% of 126 blogs surveyed [3]) use Twitter as a complementary outlet for disseminating new blog posts to followers.

Online Tools Improve Research Efficiency

Seasoned internet users are often adamant that online tools can increase their productivity and lead to overall improvements in their personal research efficiency. Unfortunately for data-driven scientists, the majority of present evidence is anecdotal. Twitter has helped busy academics keep up with new research developments, prepare teaching materials, and offer guidance for graduate students (http://bit.ly/VsyERghttp://bit.ly/UTAQ1ihttp://bit.ly/VN6hyf). In one extreme case, when faced with a looming deadline for obtaining export permits, Facebook helped researchers identify thousands of fish specimens in under a week [2]. Other researchers use online activities as a way to organize their thoughts and research notes (e.g., online lab books; http://bit.ly/W3f4LL), or to foster creativity and hone their writing skills [3].

Online communities can be especially useful for niche topics where community members have specific needs or require specialized interactions. For example, blog updates and discussion forums can offer user support for software (e.g., programs written in R, http://www.r-bloggers.com), while communities of taxonomists may benefit from a wiki devoted to a particular group of organisms (e.g., the Octopus News Magazine Online for cephalopods,http://www.tonmo.com). Research-focused portals can also result in content curation—amalgamating disparate resources into an organized whole and weeding out untrustworthy sources. Futhermore, citizen science projects (http://www.scistarter.com) and online scientific games (e.g., Foldit for protein structure [4]) assist scientists by allowing members of the general public to make unique and meaningful contributions to ongoing research projects.

The increasing use of online resources may eventually transform and expand the culture of science as a whole. Blogs and social media tools offer an ideal medium for extended scientific conversations (both preprint commentary, such as at http://arXiv.org, and postpublication review) and enable fast-paced discussions of topics that scientists “want and need to discuss” (e.g., topics where peer review is not suitable or necessary [5]http://bit.ly/WLeajr). It is also increasingly common for blog posts to serve as the basis for peer-reviewed manuscripts (this article, as well as examples cited in [5]). Author Jeremy Fox [5] argues that the online scientific community could become a powerful force for promoting important causes and connecting with policymakers; such impacts have already been seen in the economics community, where blog posts and online discussions led to groundbreaking policy decisions at the US Federal Reserve.

Online Visibility Helps Track and Improve Scientific Metrics

There is mounting evidence to suggest that an active online presence may directly impact a researcher’s credentials as measured through traditional metrics. One UK researcher observed that tweeting and blogging about her own papers led to spikes in the number of article downloads, even for older literature that had been available for years without much previous attention (http://bit.ly/LxpbDz). For articles deposited in the preprint server arXiv, Twitter mentions were positively correlated with rapid article downloads and citations appearing only months after deposition [6]. It is presently unclear as to whether tweeting leads to long-term increases in citations or merely highlights high-quality science that would garner numerous citations even in the absence of social media coverage. However, Eysenbach [7] reported that highly tweeted journal articles were 11 times more likely to be highly cited versus articles without strong social media coverage. Priem et al. [8] additionally demonstrated that journal articles come in drastically different “flavors,” in terms of the way that they are disseminated and consumed among the research community. Social media and article-level metrics may thus be particularly important for unveiling research impacts that cannot be reflected in traditional scientific metrics; for example, Priem et al. noted that some articles may be rarely cited, but heavily read and downloaded by academics.

Social Media Enhances Professional Networking

Online discussions can lead to tangible, real-world social interactions. Before ever meeting in person, conversations on Twitter can serve as an icebreaker once two people finally meet in a conference or workshop setting. The online world can also broaden a scientist’s impact in the research world. Tweeting from conferences (discussing cutting-edge research developments, linking to journal articles or lab websites, e.g., http://bit.ly/11CGRGL) can introduce other scientists to valuable content, and consequently provide networking opportunities for users who actively post during meetings. Because Twitter serves as an information filter for many scientists, publicizing articles on social media can alert researchers to interesting studies that they may not have otherwise come across (e.g., research in journals tangential to their field or within-discipline publications they do not normally read). Journalists and scientists following a conference tweet stream may be additionally introduced to new groups of researchers (particularly early-career scientists or those scientists who are new to Twitter) with relevant and related interests; conference tweeting can thus serve to enhance in-person networking opportunities by expanding these activities to online spheres. For example, a researcher (who asked to remain anonymous) followed HMB and MCG’s live tweets from the 2012 Ocean Sciences Meeting and discovered that a scientific question forming the basis of an unsubmitted grant proposal had already been answered. This saved the researcher the effort of submitting a proposal that was unlikely to be funded.

Broadening “Broader Impacts”

Along with forging links between scientists, online interactions have the potential to enhance “broader impacts” by improving communication between scientists and the general public [9]. An established track record and well-thought-out online outreach strategy can satisfy broader impacts criteria that are increasingly required by funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation. Blogs were being touted as an important outlet for scientists as early as 2006, when researchers were urged to “contribute informed opinions to environmental debates and develop a collective presence in the blogosphere, thereby increasing its inherent credibility” [10]. In some respects, the internet can be a more powerful force than traditional channels—when content goes “viral,” the reach can be truly global. Two projects aimed at changing the perception of science and scientists themselves have recently gone viral in the online science world: the hashtag #iamscience (soon to be turned into a book and podcast) and “This is What a Scientist Looks Like” (http://bit.ly/SayFt2). These initiatives are meant to raise scientists’ profiles, dispel ubiquitous stereotypes, and highlight the unconventional career paths followed by most scientists. Such campaigns would be difficult to pursue within the formalized structure of research and academia.

Defining Goals and Choosing among Online Tools

The internet represents an increasingly vast toolbox, and it can be difficult to choose among the long list of “core” resources (Box 1). For those starting out, it is critical to first define what you want to achieve, and then set out to use the tools that are best targeted toward this goal (Figure 2 provides an overview flowchart to help initially define these goals, while Figure 3 lists some common fears for new users); online tools are most effective when customized and used for a specific purpose (http://bit.ly/13J7AAS). Do you want to disseminate information about a discrete event, such as a field expedition? Do you want to build a community of your scientific peers? Do you want to communicate your science to a nonscientist audience? To save time and target the most efficient resources, it is important to think about the timeline of your goals and the time commitment you are willing or able to make. In addition, each social media portal offers unique features, which can complement each other when content is shared between sites.
Figure 2. Flowchart showing a decision tree for scientists who are interested in communicating online.

An earlier version of this flowchart appeared in a guest post by MCG in Nature‘s Soapbox Science blog (http://goo.gl/AeKjJ).

doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001535.g002

Figure 3. Common online communication fears and suggested solutions.

An earlier version of this figure appeared in a guest post by MCG in Nature’s Soapbox Science blog (http://goo.gl/AeKjJ).

doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001535.g003

The next step is to choose online tools that will be maximally beneficial for your specific needs. Blog posts are long form and long-term projects. They require greater initial time investments—crafting and editing posts can take hours—but blog content can be widely disseminated, linked via search engine terms, and provide an “expert” information source that is accessible for years to come. At Deep Sea News, a marine science blog where HMB and MCG are both scientific contributors (http://deepseanews.com), website analytics reveal that most users arrive at the blog via generalized search queries such as “deep sea” and are directed to archived posts with informative content. For example, a January 2011 post entitled “Deep Sea 101: What is the Deep Sea?” is a popular search engine–driven entry point to the blog.

Twitter, on the other hand, is short form and ephemeral—its true appeal lies in the zeitgeist. Twitter users share information and converse in real time, such as through discussions that occur while following a live event (conference talks or workshop discussions tagged with unique keywords, referred to as hashtags; see Box 1) or while remotely participating in a shared activity (e.g., #FridayNightScience, an online outlet for escaping the often-solitary nature of scientific research). Users should note that Twitter itself quickly archives “old” content—for example, tweets amalgamated under a popular conference hashtag may no longer be visible or accessible via searches after a few days. To some extent, using tweet-timing tools (e.g., http://bufferapp.com) can be harnessed to maximize viewership. When Twitter is used correctly, participants should feel that they have an up-to-the-minute personalized news feed and are participating in relevant and meaningful conversations.

Regardless of the platform, social media interactions require two-way conversations (see Box 2). Joining one of the many preexisting scientific conversations can simultaneously disseminate your own content, expand your online network, and raise your professional visibility. An easy entry point is the ScienceOnline conglomerate (http://scienceonline.com), an enthusiastic group of science communicators ranging from tenured professors to freelance journalists [9],[11],[12].

Long-term Needs and Outlook

Social media and internet-based resources are increasingly ubiquitous. Thus, there is a pressing need for scientific institutions to offer formalized training opportunities for graduate students and tenured faculty alike to learn how to effectively use this new technology. Such training should address common misconceptions about social media platforms and help researchers identify an online repertoire that works best for their specific needs and goals. Organizations such as COMPASS (http://www.compassonline.org) can be called in to offer social media training workshops for scientists, and books such as Escape from the Ivory Tower [13] are succinct reference texts offering advice and guidance for interacting with a variety of media sources.

One barrier impacting tool adoption and training opportunities is the fact that online tools are commonly viewed as “uncharted territory.” The novelty of these resources often clouds our understanding of their measurable impacts and long-term utility, particularly in regards to research productivity and science communication/education efforts. In order to understand and refine online tools, appropriate and quantitative metrics are needed. Without high-quality data, it will be impossible to understand the true reach of these tools and discover the most effective uses of different platforms. The altmetrics movement (http://bit.ly/W3gRAD) has sprung up in response to this scenario, aiming to provide a means to measure the true impact of scientific research (social media discussion, journalistic coverage, etc.), as opposed to the perceived value of the venue (e.g., a journal) where research findings may be published. New tools for tracking a researcher’s output include Google Scholar profiles (http://scholar.google.com), ImpactStory (http://impactstory.org), and the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) initiative (http://orcid.org). In addition, publishers such as PLOS are increasingly offering article-level metrics that log the number of article views, PDF downloads, social media discussions, and associated blog/media coverage.

Social media continues to evolve, grow, and undergo metamorphosis. The use of online tools and cutting-edge technology is growing among scientists, but their adoption and acceptance remains limited across the wider research community. In a 2011 study, only 2.5% of UK and US academics had established a Twitter account [14]. As the benefits become more apparent and dedicated metrics are developed to supplement scientists’ portfolios, social media may soon become an integral part of the researcher’s toolkit.

Acknowledgments

Our understanding of these topics was greatly influenced by the Science Online conference and the Deep Sea News retreat. Many thanks to the online science community and our fellow ocean bloggers for years of vigorous conversations on these topics.

References

  1. 1.Boyd DM, Ellison NB (2007) Social network sites: Definition, history and scholarship. J Comput Mediat Commun 13: 210–230. doi: 10.1104/pp.64.6.1070
  2. 2.Sidlauskas B (2011) Life in science. Ichthyologists hooked on Facebook. Science 332: 537. doi: 10.1126/science.332.6029.537-c
  3. 3.Shema H, Bar-Ilan J, Thelwall M (2012) Research blogs and the discussion of scholarly information. PLoS ONE 7: e35869 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035869.
  4. 4.Khatib F, Cooper S, Tyka MD, Xu K, Makedon I, et al. (2011) Algorithm discovery by protein folding game players. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108: 18949–18953. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1115898108
  5. 5.Fox J (2012) Can blogging change how ecologists share ideas? In economics, it already has. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution 5: 74–77. doi: 10.4033/iee.2012.5b.15.f
  6. 6.Shuai X, Pepe A, Bollen J (2012) How the scientific community reacts to newly submitted preprints: Article downloads, Twitter mentions, and citations. PLoS ONE 7: e47523 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047523.
  7. 7.Eysenbach G (2011) Can tweets predict citations? Metrics of social impact based on twitter and correlation with traditional metrics of scientific impact. J Med Internet Res 13: e123. doi: 10.2196/jmir.2012
  8. 8.Priem J, Piowar HA, Hemminger BM (2012) Altmetrics in the Wild: Using social media to explore scholarly impact. arXivorg arXiv:1203.4745 [cs.DL] 1–23. doi: 10.4033/iee.2012.5b.15.f
  9. 9.Wilcox C (2012) Guest editorial: It’s time to e-volve: Taking responsibility for science communication in a digital age. Biol Bull 222: 85–87.
  10. 10.Ashlin A, Ladle RJ (2006) Science communication: Environmental science adrift in the blogosphere. Science 312: 201. doi: 10.1126/science.1124197
  11. 11.Batts SA, Anthis NJ, Smith TC (2008) Advancing science through conversations: Bridging the gap between blogs and the academy. PLoS Biology 6: e240 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060240.
  12. 12.Wilkins JS (2008) The roles, reasons and restrictions of science blogs. Trends Ecol Evol 23: 411–413. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.05.004
  13. 13.Baron N (2010) Escape from the ivory tower: A guide to making your science matter. Washington, DC: Island Press.
  14. 14.Priem J, Costello K, Dzuba T (2011) First-year gradute students just wasting time? Prevalence and use of Twitter among scholars. Metrics 2011 Symposium on Informetric and Scientometric Research. New Orleans, Louisiana, United States.
  15. 15.OnlineMBA (2012) A case study in social media demographics.
  16. 16.Boyd D (2009) MySpace vs. Facebook: A digital enactment of class-based social categories amongst American teenager.
  17. 17.Hargittai E (2007) Whose space? Differences among users and non-users of social network sites. J Comput Mediat Commun 13: 276–297. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00396.x

Why Social Media?

In the age of the internet, social media tools offer a powerful way for scientists to boost their professional profile and act as a public voice for science. Although the type of online conversations and shared content can vary widely, scientists are increasingly using social media as a way to share journal articles, advertise their thoughts and scientific opinions, post updates from conferences and meetings, and circulate information about professional opportunities and upcoming events. Google searches now represent the standard approach for discovering information about a topic or person—whether it be search committees collecting information about faculty candidates, graduate students searching out prospective labs, or journalists on the hunt for an expert source. Consequently, in today’s technology-driven world, lack of an online presence can severely limit a researcher’s visibility, and runs the risk that undesirable search results appear before desirable ones. A growing body of evidence suggests that public visibility and constructive conversation on social media networks can be beneficial for scientists, impacting research in a number of key ways.

Why Social Media?

Social media includes web-based and mobile technologies used to turn communication into interactive dialogue. (Wikipedia)

Google Hangout with Scientists using Social media on “The Science of Science Communication in Social Media (12-17-13)

Social Media Planning

 

Background and Misc. Resources

 

Project Examples

Video Examples

Mapping Examples/Resources

 

Digital Storytelling Examples

Mobile Tech and App Examples/Articles

  • GreenRN: mobile ap provides tips for nurses three times a week to educate and inspire nurse professionals and students about environmental health factors and ways to positively affect their patients and themselves.
  • Locavore site and app to find and share local, in-season food.
  • Healthy Child Healthy World: mobile apps (pocket guides), social networking
  • Text2Quit: mobile, texting
  • AirNow Mobile App from the EPA
  • State of the Air App from the American Lung Assoc.
  • CitiSense from UCSD scientists
  • What’s on my food? from Pesticide Action Network
  • Daily dose of toxics to be tracked – Nature article on how exposome studies tie environmental exposure to biological triggers of disease

Twitter

Tweeting at Conferences

Training Opportunities and Resources

 

Superfund Related Training and Professional Development Resources

Multimedia & Data Visualization

Science & Health Communication

Groups

Assessment and Evaluation

 

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Partnerships for Environmental Public Health Evaluation Metrics Manual. NIH Publication No. 12-7825. [Metrics are included for web and social media]

General

Twitter

 

Facebook

Pinterest

Photos in Facebook

Facebook‘s user interface is not what you’d call a designer’s dream. Flying in the face of the trend towards customization, it has remained perversely and stubbornly enamored of its simple, lowest-common-denominator aesthetic.
The layout is frustratingly rigid and idiosyncratic, and users are given very little control over the look and feel of their profiles or pages.

Facebook can be a great way to share photos with people you know, especially if you want them actually seen. And Facebook itself is evidently increasingly seeing the value of photos as content, especially when people tag people and places. In recent years, it has become the largest online photo storage site by far, and is now much bigger than the previous kings of the roost, Flickr and Photobucket. The new player on the scene, Google+, is arguably even better for displaying and sharing photos, but it still doesn’t have anywhere near the volume or reach of Facebook.

It’s getting more photo- and graphics-friendly, if ever so slowly.
There are a few different ways of using images and photos on Facebook.
Some are for design and identity on the user interface, such as the
profile picture and link thumbnails to display on your profile or page
and wall. It’s also a great place to share photos. (But be sure to read
the terms of service before diving in–see below.)
And now that Timeline is getting activated for all users in their
personal profile (but not yet for product or business pages), there’s a
new set of variations. To make best use of the graphic elements you can
control it’s very helpful to know what dimensions constraints you have
to work within. I’ve found Facebook’s own help pages are frustratingly
fragmented and sometimes obtuse. So I thought I’d try to put all the
image and graphics dimensions specs together. These are a bit of a
moving target—Facebook changes things from time to time, typically with
little notice—but I’ll try to keep these up to date.

Width Height Notes
Cover Photo 851px 315px
Profile Image 180px 180px Scaled down automatically to 32x32px
Link Thumbnail 90px 90px
Uploaded Photos 2048px 2048px
Displayed Photos 960px 720px
Pinned Post 403px 403px
Application Favicon 16px 16px
Application Icon 110px 74px Size limit of 5MB
Milestone Picture 843px 403px

 

Timeline Photos

There are two main images you can control on the new Timeline view, the Cover Photo and the Profile Image.

Cover Photo

Facebook calls the large, panoramic image space at the top of the
timeline is called the Cover Photo. In the example at the top of this
page, it’s a picture of the Informational folder, a part of the umbrella designs for the World Bank’s Business Intelligence Department.
Facebook does impose some restrictions on what you use for the Cover
Photo. It can’t be primarily text or contain contact information that
should be in your “About” section. You also, of course, can’t infringe
anyone else’s copyright with it. You can read more of Facebook’s
restrictions here.

The final display image comes out at 851 pixels wide by 315 pixels high. Facebook’s
help pages recommend that you use an image that is at least 720 pixels
wide.You can upload an image already cropped and resized to precisely
those sizes (here’s how if you’re using Lightroom).
Or you can upload a larger image, in which case you’ll be given a
chance to move the image to display the part you want–basically forced
cropping.

You can only designate one photo as your Cover Photo. Panoramas are
ideal, but there’s nothing stopping you from assembling a montage in
your imaging software, saving it as a single image file, and uploading
that.

When you first convert your profile to the Timeline, you won’t have a
cover photo. To add one, just click on the Add Covert Photo button at
the top of the page where the Cover Photo will go. You’ll then get this
warning popup:

Screen Shot 2012 02 12 at 2.15.42 PM How to Use Photos on Facebook: Dimensions, Sizes, & Types (2012)

Once you’ve added your photo, you can change it easily. When you’re
logged in to your account and on the Timeline view, if you hover the
mouse over the Cover Photo you should get a “Change Cover” button at the
bottom right of the Cover Photo. Click on that and you’ll get the menu
item to choose where photo comes from. You can choose from existing
photos you’ve uploaded to Facebook or upload a new one. And if you
decide you want to reposition or remove the photo, you can use the same
menu. It looks a little something like this:

Screen Shot 2012 02 12 at 12.38.44 PM How to Use Photos on Facebook: Dimensions, Sizes, & Types (2012)

Something to be aware of is that Facebook compresses uploaded Cover
Photos pretty aggressively when you upload them. It makes
sense–naturally, they want to speed page loads and reduce bandwidth by
applying as much compression as they can get away with. To my mind, they
compress too much, but how noticeable it is will depend on whether
things like the range of colors in your image and amount of detail in
your photo. In the examples above, the JPEG compression is far more
noticeable in the montage version than in the Sydney Harbour Bridge
version. I set the quality and sharpening settings the same for each in
the originals before they were uploaded.

Profile Image

The Profile Image is now the smaller, square at bottom left. In the
examples above, it’s my shadow. It’s final display dimensions are 160 pixels by 160 pixels. The white border is added automatically.

Link Thumbnails

link 280x108 How to Use Photos on Facebook: Dimensions, Sizes, & Types (2012)Maximum Image Dimensions: 90 pixels by 90 pixels These
are the small icons you can choose when adding a link to your wall. If
you’re posting the link through Facebook itself and the linked page
includes photos, you’ll be given options taken from the graphics or
photos on the linked page. Use the arrows to choose a thumbnail or check
the box for no thumbnail. Through Facebook itself, you can’t upload
your own image to use, but you can if you use Post It At(Post It At only works for pages, not for personal profiles).

Uploaded Photos

Maximum Image Dimensions: 2048 px X 2048 px
Facebook recently increased the size of the photos significantly. It
also added a javascript Lightbox viewer, a simple but stylish way to
display images and associated comments. The folks over at PetaPixel have
put together a nifty graphicto
visualize the changes in Facebook image sizes. When you upload a photo
through Facebook’s inbuilt image uploader you get the option to control
to some extent who can see the photo. You can customize by location and
language, but there’s no simple way to control if you only want to share
the photo with Aunt Gertrude and no-one else. And there’s no way to
switch off the download link–if people can see your photos, they can
download the original version you uploaded–you can’t specify things like
allowing only low-res downloads. And if you really want to control who
can see the photos you’re going to have to wade into the convoluted and
often counter intuitive way Facebook deals with privacy settings on your
account.

How to Change Your Profile Picture Thumbnail

Your
profile picture thumbnail is the small, square image that’s used around
the site next to your comments or other site activity. It’s taken from
your profile image–you can’t have separate images for your profile image
and your profile thumbnail.

You don’t have a whole lot of control over the way the thumbnail displays, but you do have a little bit.

First, make sure you’re signed in to Facebook and looking at your own
wall. Then hover the cursor over your profile image at top left and
you’ll see a “Change Picture” button appear at top right of the image.
You can also use the “Profile Picture” item from the menu below the
image.

When you click on that you’ll get a screen with your image at left
and options to add a new image at right. But under your existing image,
there’s a tiny “Edit Thumbnail” link. When you click on that, you get a
popup that looks like this: Screen Shot 2012 02 12 at 3.55.41 PM 600x226 How to Use Photos on Facebook: Dimensions, Sizes, & Types (2012)

If you put the mouse over the small image square, click and hold and
drag, your can move it up and down to choose different parts of the
image. You can also use the “Scale to fit” option to fit the entire
image in that tiny square (that doesn’t work very well for tall profile
images like I’m using here). When you click Save, it’ll update every
thumbnail next to your comments through Facebook automatically.

Facebook’s Terms of Service

Just because you can add photos to Facebook doesn’t necessarily mean
you should immediately start uploading your entire image archive.
Facebook’s terms of service are closely watched and often controversial. So I’d definitely recommend reading the TOS
carefully before uploading to see whether it fits with what you want to
do. If you’re a stock photographer that needs to control dissemination
(eg. if you have an exclusive contract with an agency)
you’ll want to look into this very carefully before uploading any
photos that might cause a conflict. At the time of writing, the terms
pertinent to sharing photos are:

Sharing Your Content and Information

You own all of the content and information you post on Facebook, and
you can control how it is shared through your privacy and application
settings. In addition:

  1. For content that is covered by intellectual property rights, like
    photos and videos (“IP content”), you specifically give us the following
    permission, subject to your privacy and application settings: you grant
    us a non-exclusive, transferable, sub-licensable, royalty-free,
    worldwide license to use any IP content that you post on or in
    connection with Facebook (“IP License”). This IP License ends when you
    delete your IP content or your account unless your content has been
    shared with others, and they have not deleted it.
  2. When you delete IP content, it is deleted in a manner similar to
    emptying the recycle bin on a computer. However, you understand that
    removed content may persist in backup copies for a reasonable period of
    time (but will not be available to others).
  3. When you use an application, your content and information is shared
    with the application. We require applications to respect your privacy,
    and your agreement with that application will control how the
    application can use, store, and transfer that content and information.
    (To learn more about Platform, read our Privacy Policy and Platform
    Page.)
  4. When you publish content or information using the “everyone”
    setting, it means that you are allowing everyone, including people off
    of Facebook, to access and use that information, and to associate it
    with you (i.e., your name and profile picture).
  5. We always appreciate your feedback or other suggestions about
    Facebook, but you understand that we may use them without any obligation
    to compensate you for them (just as you have no obligation to offer
    them)

Again, it’s a bit of a moving target–Facebook updates its terms from time to time–so be sure to check the current, full version.
And it’s also entirely possible that the terms will change at some
point after you’ve uploaded the images. Oh, and while you’re at it, why
not use the panel at right to “Like” my Facebook page so you’ll be sure to get more handy hints like these.

CSS3 10 Uses…

We have seen a tremendous number of advancements in CSS3 web development
over just the past few years. Popular websites all around the Internet
have begun incorporating many unique styles such as rounded corners and mobile-responsive media queries. But even more importantly this has opened the door for creative interfaces to be prototyped in a matter of minutes.

In this article I want to share 10 code snippets relating to brilliant CSS3 box shadow designs. I’ll explain how the code works and how you can implement each box shadow into your own website.

These styles are all attributed to great design influence from other
popular websites. This is a great example of how current web developers are building impactful trends for the future of web design.

1. Fixed Top Toolbar

The Romanian social media service Trilulilu uses a floating top toolbar around their entire website. This can be created quickly using a position: fixed; property on any top bar element. But this additional box shadow takes the effect to a whole new level.

Trilulilu fixed top toolbar box shadow
#banner {
position: fixed;
height: 60px;
width: 100%;
top: 0;
left: 0;
border-top: 5px solid #a1cb2f;
background: #fff;
-moz-box-shadow: 0 2px 3px 0px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.16);
-webkit-box-shadow: 0 2px 3px 0px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.16);
box-shadow: 0 2px 3px 0px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.16);
z-index: 999999;
}

#banner h1 {
    line-height: 60px;
}

You’ll notice the box-shadow property is actually set up with a
fairly simple value combination. The shadow will fall below the box, and
blur by 3px on either side.

We can use the rgba() method for applying slight
opacity onto the shadow, so the element doesn’t appear too dark. It’s a
subtle addition which will surely capture your visitor’s attention.

2. Sub-Navigation Dropdown

Here is another creative box shadow method applied onto a scalar dropdown sub-menu. A similar effect can be seen on Entrepreneur
as you hover over each of the top main navigation links. This is
definitely a bit more tricky to configure but well worth the patience.

Navigation menu dropdown box shadow styles
#bar { display: block; height: 45px; background: #22385a; padding-top: 5px; margin-bottom: 150px; position: relative; }
#bar ul { margin: 0px 15px; font-family: Candara, Calibri, "Segoe UI", Segoe, Arial, sans-serif; }
#bar ul li {  background: #22385a; display: block; font-size: 1.2em; position: relative; float: left; }
#bar ul li a { 
display: block; 
color: #fffff7; 
line-height: 45px; 
font-weight: bold; 
padding: 0px 10px; 
text-decoration: none;
z-index: 9999;
}

#bar ul li a:hover, #bar ul li a.selected {
color: #365977;
background: #fff;
border-top-left-radius: 3px;
border-top-right-radius: 3px;
-webkit-border-top-left-radius: 3px;
-webkit-border-top-right-radius: 3px;
-moz-border-radius-topleft: 3px;
-moz-border-radius-topright: 3px;
}

#bar ul .subnav {
display: block;
left: 14px;
top: 48px;
z-index: -1;
width: 500px;
position: absolute;
height: 90px;
border: 1px solid #edf0f3;
border-top: 0;
padding: 10px 0 10px 10px; 
overflow: hidden;
-moz-border-radius-bottomleft: 3px;
-moz-border-radius-bottomleft: 3px;
-webkit-border-bottom-left-radius: 3px;
-webkit-border-bottom-right-radius: 3px;
border-bottom-right-radius: 3px;
border-bottom-right-radius: 3px;
-moz-box-shadow: 0px 2px 7px rgba(0,0,0,0.25);
-webkit-box-shadow: 0px 2px 7px rgba(0,0,0,0.25);
box-shadow: 0px 2px 7px rgba(0,0,0,0.25);
-ms-filter: "progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Shadow(Strength=3, Direction=180, Color='#333333')";
filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Shadow(Strength=3, Direction=180, Color='#333333');
}

The nav links can be styled to change color when selected or on mouse
hover. I’m also adding some rounded borders onto the links and over the
dropdown menu box. This gives a nicer feel rather than hard edges all
around. I am also making good use of the -ms-filter and filter properties which are solely proprietary to Internet Explorer.

If you setup a full navigation system you’ll be able to change the
display set to none and hide the menu once the page loads. Then using
some jQuery you can target the .hover() event and display the subnav bar with updated content.

3. Glossy Shadow Button

This is possibly one of my favorite styles to create just because of
how dynamic it appears on the page. If you can’t tell, this is the small
blue button found on YouTube’s home page after you first login.

jsFiddle YouTube blue CSS3 gradient box-shadow button
blues {
color: #fff;
width: 190px;
height: 35px;
cursor: pointer;
font-family: Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;
font-size: 1.0em;
font-weight: bold;
-moz-border-radius: 2px;
-webkit-border-radius: 2px;
border-radius: 2px;
border-width: 1px;
border-color: #0053a6 #0053a6 #000;
background-color: #6891e7;
background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(top,#4495e7 0, #0053a6 100%);
background-image: -ms-linear-gradient(top,#4495e7 0, #0053a6 100%);
background-image: -o-linear-gradient(top,#4495e7 0, #0053a6 100%);
background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear,left top,left bottom,color-stop(0, #4495e7),color-stop(100%, #0053a6));
background-image: -webkit-linear-gradient(top,#4495e7 0,#0053a6 100%);
background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom,#4495e7 0,#0053a6 100%);
text-shadow: 1px 1px 0 rgba(0, 0, 0, .6);
-moz-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 0 rgba(256, 256, 256, .35);
-ms-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 0 rgba(256, 256, 256, .35);
-webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 0 rgba(256, 256, 256, .35);
box-shadow: inset 0 1px 0 rgba(256, 256, 256, .35);
filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Gradient(GradientType=0,StartColorStr=#4495e7,EndColorStr=#0053a6);
}

.blues:hover {
border-color: #002d59 #002d59 #000;
-moz-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 0 rgba(256, 256, 256, 0.55), 1px 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.25);
-ms-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 0 rgba(256, 256, 256, 0.55), 1px 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.25);
-webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 0 rgba(256, 256, 256, 0.55), 1px 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.25);
box-shadow: inset 0 1px 0 rgba(256, 256, 256, 0.55), 1px 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, .25);
filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Gradient(GradientType=0,StartColorStr=#3a8cdf ,EndColorStr=#0053a6);
background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(top,#3a8cdf 0,#0053a6 100%);
background-image: -ms-linear-gradient(top,#3a8cdf 0,#0053a6 100%);
background-image: -o-linear-gradient(top,#3a8cdf 0,#0053a6 100%);
background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear,left top,left bottom,color-stop(0,#3a8cdf),color-stop(100%,#0053a6));
background-image: -webkit-linear-gradient(top,#3a8cdf 0,#0053a6 100%);
background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom,#3a8cdf 0,#0053a6 100%);
}

.blues:active {
border-color: #000 #002d59 #002d59;
-moz-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.2),0 1px 0 #fff;
-ms-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.2),0 1px 0 #fff;
-webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.2),0 1px 0 #fff;
box-shadow: inset 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.2),0 1px 0 #fff;
filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Gradient(GradientType=0,StartColorStr=#005ab4,EndColorStr=#175ea6);
background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(top,#005ab4 0,#175ea6 100%);
background-image: -ms-linear-gradient(top,#005ab4 0,#175ea6 100%);
background-image: -o-linear-gradient(top,#005ab4 0,#175ea6 100%);
background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear,left top,left bottom,color-stop(0,#005ab4),color-stop(100%,#175ea6));
background-image: -webkit-linear-gradient(top,#005ab4 0,#175ea6 100%);
background-image: linear-gradient(to bottom,#005ab4 0,#175ea6 100%);
}

The whole button code is a lot to look at, but we’re trying to support as many browsers as possible. There are text shadows and box shadows with accompanying support for MS Internet Explorer 7+. Also we’re setting the background-image property with CSS3 gradients over a wide number of vendor specific prefixes.

But if you love this design style then the hover and active states will also catch your attention.
We’re basically updating the border to include some shadows inside as
you push down, while updating the background gradient to show a bit
darker.

Since there are no images on the button you can update the hex values and morph this to blend into practically any color scheme.

4. Notifications Flyout Menu

I am not a big user of Facebook but I have noticed some UI techniques
from their redesigns. This flyout menu can be compared to your
notifications or friend requests popup found on the homepage.

Facebook notifications box shadow popup display
.flyout {
width: 310px;
margin-top: 10px;
font-size: 11px;
position: relative;
font-family: 'Lucida Grande', Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
background-color: white;
padding: 9px 11px;
background: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.9);
border: 1px solid #c5c5c5;
-webkit-box-shadow: 0 3px 8px rgba(0, 0, 0, .25);
-moz-box-shadow: 0 3px 8px rgba(0, 0, 0, .25);
box-shadow: 0 3px 8px rgba(0, 0, 0, .25);
-webkit-border-radius: 3px;
-moz-border-radius: 3px;
border-radius: 3px;
}

.flyout #tip {
background-image: url('images/tip.png');
background-repeat: no-repeat;
background-size: auto;
height: 11px;
position: absolute;
top: -11px;
left: 25px;
width: 20px;
}

.flyout h2 {
text-transform: uppercase;
color: #666;
font-size: 1.2em; 
padding-bottom: 5px;
margin-bottom: 12px;
border-bottom: 1px solid #dcdbda;
}
.flyout p { padding-bottom: 25px; font-size: 1.1em; color: #222; }

There isn’t a whole lot of new mind-bending code to display here. I am using a small .tip class with an internal span element to add the tooltip triangle. It is possible to create pure CSS3 triangles
but this method is not easy, as you may imagine. If you prefer this
method it may be worth hacking something together. But the CSS3 rotation
properties are not supported everywhere; meanwhile images do not
require any fallback method.

5. Apple Page Wrapper

There are so many impressive CSS3 box shadows you can find on Apple’s official website.
This example below is a small box container with a few column spans.
When looking over Apple’s layout you’ll notice many of their pages made
up of numerous wrapper boxes.

CSS3 Apple display banner box-shadow styles
.applewrap {
width: 100%;
display: block;
height: 150px;
background: white;
border: 1px solid;
border-color: #e5e5e5 #dbdbdb #d2d2d2;
-webkit-border-radius: 4px;
-moz-border-radius: 4px;
border-radius: 4px;
-webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.3) 0 1px 3px;
-moz-box-shadow: rgba(0,0,0,0.3) 0 1px 3px;
box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.3) 0 1px 3px;
}


.applewrap .col {
float: left;
box-sizing: border-box;
width: 250px;
height: 150px;
padding: 16px 7px 6px 22px;
font: 12px/18px "Lucida Grande", "Lucida Sans Unicode", Helvetica, Arial, Verdana, sans-serif;
color: #343434;
border-right: 1px solid #dadada;
}

You could put together a similar page split up by content boxes of
various width and height. Although I have put a few columns into this
demo it is not a necessary formatting technique by any means. The box
shadow will fit best on a white/grey background. But I think displaying
over any light color would look pretty good.

6. Apple Content Box

This other style of content box on Apple’s website is used mostly for column designs.
These are primarily at the bottom of the page showcasing deals and
other related information. It’s a totally different design style with
the box shadow displaying inside from the top down.

Apple CSS3 box-shadow inset display styles


.applebox {
width: auto;
height: 85px;
box-sizing: border-box;
background: #f5f5f5;
padding: 20px 20px 10px;
margin: 10px 0 20px;
border: 1px solid #ccc;
border-radius: 4px;
-webkit-border-radius: 4px;
-moz-border-radius: 4px;
-o-border-radius: 4px;
-webkit-box-shadow: inset 0px 1px 1px rgba(0, 0, 0, .3);
-moz-box-shadow: inset 0px 1px 1px rgba(0, 0, 0, .3);
box-shadow: inset 0px 1px 1px rgba(0, 0, 0, .3);
}

.applebox .col {
width: 140px; 
float: left;
margin: 0 0 0 30px;
}

I don’t think this code should be too difficult to follow and copy
onto another div container. The only box-shadow we’re applying is using inset
with the rgba alpha-transparent color codes. So although we have the
drop shadow set to pure black we’re only displaying about a 30% opacity.

7. Featured Links

This is probably my favorite box shadow style from Apple’s current
website. You should find a live demo style of this technique on the iCloud page with a series of floating link boxes.

Apple iCloud featured anchor link boxes

.applefeature {
height: 150px;
margin: 8px;
vertical-align: top;
display: inline-block;
}

.applefeature a {
display: block;
width: 168px;
height: 140px;
border: 1px solid #ccc;
color: #333;
text-decoration: none;
font-weight: bold;
line-height: 1.3em;
background: #f7f7f7;
-webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, .3);
-moz-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, .3);
box-shadow: inset 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, .3);
-webkit-border-radius: 4px;
-moz-border-radius: 4px;
border-radius: 4px;
}
.applefeature a:hover {
background: #fafafa;
background: -webkit-gradient(linear, 0% 0%, 0% 100%, from(#fff), to(#f7f7f7));
background: -moz-linear-gradient(100% 100% 90deg, #f7f7f7, #fff);
-webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 2px rgba(0,0,0,.3); 
-moz-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 2px rgba(0,0,0,.3); 
box-shadow: inset 0 1px 2px rgba(0,0,0,.3);
-webkit-border-radius: 4px; 
-moz-border-radius: 4px; 
border-radius: 4px;
}

.applefeature a img { 
display: block;
margin: 26px auto 4px;
}
.applefeature a h4 {
display: block;
width: 160px;
font-size: 1.3em;
font-family: Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;
color: #646464;
text-align: center;
}

These featured links are set to a fixed width and include a distinct
icon and display text. Apple’s example uses a similar box shadow as we
saw in the previous content box. However the entire box can now be activated as a link which includes both the :hover and :active states. There is a lot of flexibility with this link box and you should try playing around with the source code.

It’s possible to shorten the height/width and create a much smaller
list of links. These could be a set of chapters or pages in an article,
or you could make a sub-menu limited with link icons. It’s honestly a
great set of newer CSS3 techniques which demonstrate how much power you
have as a web designer.

8. Framed Images

I’ve added a grey background onto this example so you can see the box
shadow styles more clearly. This box is similar to the featured preview
shots on wordpress.com except I’ve added a bit more depth to the source code.

Wordpress image frame CSS3 box shadow

.wpframe {
background: #fff;
border-radius: 2px;
-webkit-border-radius: 2px;
-moz-border-radius: 2px;
padding: 8px;
-webkit-box-shadow: 1px 2px 1px #d1d1d1;
-moz-box-shadow: 1px 2px 1px #d1d1d1;
box-shadow: 1px 2px 1px #d1d1d1;
}

Since the images are given a small padding on either side this frame
appears as a large white border. You can always update the background
color, or even add a small external border to separate the image from
the background. But this fairly simplistic set of styles can be
maneuvered into various box shadow techniques. Play around with the code
and see how you can improve image designs on your own website.

9. Glowing Input Fields

I got this idea after visiting the Pinterest login page
a couple of times. Their animated styles really display some eloquent
examples of multiple inline box shadows, both outside and inset.

CSS3 Pinterest input fields box shadow design

.formwrap { display: block; margin-bottom: 15px; }
.formwrap label { 
display: inline-block; 
width: 80px; 
font-size: 11px; 
font-weight: bold; 
color: #444; 
font-family: Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif; 
}

.formwrap .shadowfield {
position: relative;
width: 250px;
font-size: 17px;
font-family: "Helvetica Neue", Arial, sans-serif;
font-weight: normal;
background: #f7f8f8;
color: #7c7c7c;
line-height: 1.4;
padding: 6px 12px;
outline: none;
transition: all 0.2s ease-in-out 0s;
-webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease-in-out 0s;
-moz-transition: all 0.2s ease-in-out 0s;
border: 1px solid #ad9c9c;
border-radius: 6px 6px 6px 6px;
box-shadow: 0 1px rgba(34, 25, 25, 0.2) inset, 0 1px #fff;
}
.formwrap .shadowfield:focus {
border-color: #930; 
background: #fff;
color: #5d5d5d;
box-shadow: inset 0 1px rgba(34, 25, 25, 0.2), 0 1px rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.6), 0 0 7px rgba(235, 82, 82, 0.5); 
-moz-box-shadow: inset 0 1px rgba(34, 25, 25, 0.2), 0 1px rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.6), 0 0 7px rgba(235, 82, 82, 0.5); 
-webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 1px rgba(34, 25, 25, 0.2), 0 1px rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.6), 0 0 7px rgba(235, 82, 82, 0.5);
}

Although the initial styles are very attractive I am drawn to the transition effects as you focus on each input field.
You can tab between them and see the immediate difference in so many
properties. The external glowing box shadow is applied along with an
updated inset shadow. Also the text color gets lighter as you’re focused on a particular input, then fades out as you defocus.

Even copying over one of these effects would greatly improve the user
experience of your form fields. Be sure that you don’t go too far
overboard to the point where your forms are barely usable. However most
visitors will enjoy the pleasing aesthetic effects which also encourage
interaction and further involvement with your website.

10. Elastic Shadow Buttons

These unique shadow buttons are styled with a slow transition during
hover and active states. You can find similar examples on the Mozilla homepage with their large “Download Firefox” button. Some of the box-shadow properties actually combine three different shadows together into one command.

jsFiddle Mozilla glossy box-shadow buttons

.blu-btn {
display: inline-block;
-moz-border-radius: .25em;
border-radius: .25em;
-webkit-box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2);
-moz-box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2);
box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2);
background-color: #276195;
background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(#3c88cc,#276195);
background-image: -ms-linear-gradient(#3c88cc,#276195);
background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear,left top,left bottom,color-stop(0%,#3c88cc),color-stop(100%,#276195));
background-image: -webkit-linear-gradient(#3c88cc,#276195);
background-image: -o-linear-gradient(#3c88cc,#276195);
filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr='#3c88cc',endColorstr='#276195',GradientType=0);
-ms-filter: "progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr='#3c88cc', endColorstr='#276195', GradientType=0)";
background-image: linear-gradient(#3c88cc,#276195);
border: 0;
cursor: pointer;
color: #fff;
text-decoration: none;
text-align: center;
font-size: 16px;
padding: 0px 20px;
height: 40px;
line-height: 40px;
min-width: 100px;
text-shadow: 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.35);
font-family: Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;
-webkit-transition: all linear .2s;
-moz-transition: all linear .2s;
-o-transition: all linear .2s;
-ms-transition: all linear .2s;
transition: all linear .2s
}
.blu-btn:hover, .blu-btn:focus {
-webkit-box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.3), inset 0 12px 20px 2px #3089d8;
-moz-box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.3), inset 0 12px 20px 2px #3089d8;
box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.3), inset 0 12px 20px 2px #3089d8;
}
.blu-btn:active {
-webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 12px 20px 6px rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 0 2px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.3);
-moz-box-shadow: inset 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 12px 20px 6px rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 0 2px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.3);
box-shadow: inset 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 12px 20px 6px rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 0 2px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.3);
}
.grn-btn {
display: inline-block;
-moz-border-radius: .25em;
border-radius: .25em;
-webkit-box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2);
-moz-box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2);
box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2);
background-color: #659324;
background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(#81bc2e,#659324);
background-image: -ms-linear-gradient(#81bc2e,#659324);
background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear,left top,left bottom,color-stop(0%,#81bc2e),color-stop(100%,#659324));
background-image: -webkit-linear-gradient(#81bc2e,#659324);
background-image: -o-linear-gradient(#81bc2e,#659324);
filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr='#81bc2e',endColorstr='#659324',GradientType=0);
-ms-filter: "progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr='#81bc2e', endColorstr='#659324', GradientType=0)";
background-image: linear-gradient(#81bc2e,#659324);
border: 0;
cursor: pointer;
color: #fff;
text-decoration: none;
text-align: center;
font-size: 16px;
padding: 0px 20px;
height: 40px;
line-height: 40px;
min-width: 100px;
text-shadow: 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.35);
font-family: Arial, Tahoma, sans-serif;
-webkit-transition: all linear .2s;
-moz-transition: all linear .2s;
-o-transition: all linear .2s;
-ms-transition: all linear .2s;
transition: all linear .2s;
}
.grn-btn:hover, .grn-btn:focus {
-webkit-box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.3), inset 0 12px 20px 2px #85ca26;
-moz-box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.3), inset 0 12px 20px 2px #85ca26;
box-shadow: 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.1), inset 0 -2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.3), inset 0 12px 20px 2px #85ca26;
}
.grn-btn:active {
-webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 12px 20px 6px rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 0 2px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.3);
-moz-box-shadow: inset 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 12px 20px 6px rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 0 2px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.3);
box-shadow: inset 0 2px 0 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 12px 20px 6px rgba(0,0,0,0.2), inset 0 0 2px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.3);
}

I’m using full transitions for 200 milliseconds on hover and active
button states. What is so great about these styles is that you can apply
them to nearly any clickable element. Buttons, anchor links, form
elements, or anything else you think is appropriate – although these
styles should be used sparsely so as not to overload your design.

Buttons like these are often saved best in the same manner that
Mozilla uses them. Attach these styles into your blog where you have
buttons for freebie downloads, or something similar. Users love to interact with unique interfaces and this often translates into a much higher percentage for your click-through rating.

Final Thoughts

I hope you can take away some great lessons from this collection of
box shadow techniques. There are many different areas you could focus on
including forms, modal boxes, buttons, toolbars, and even full website
layouts.

Feel free to implement any of these shadow effects into portions of
your own website. There are plenty of other techniques out there, but
this collection is perfect for both beginners and advanced developers.
Also if you have any suggestions or questions about the article you can
share with us in the comments discussion area below.

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In this article, we’ll share with you some tips and tricks to help you configure your Facebook Timeline and exercise your full control over your personal information. Maybe then, some of you will be convinced that the Timeline isn’t all that bad after all.

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According to the report — which combines data from Nielsen mobile and online meters, buzz data and a survey — Internet users spend more than twice as much time on social networks (including blogs) as they do on online games, the next top web destination by time.

The most popular social network as measured by Nielsen online meters is Facebook, followed by Blogger, Tumblr, Twitter and LinkedIn.

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